# Frege, (Friedrich Ludwig) Gottlob[**fray**guh](1848--1925) Mathematician and logician, born in Wismar, Germany. He studied at Jena and Göttingen, and became professor of mathematics at Jena (1896). His *Begriffsschrift* (1879, Concept-script) outlined the first complete system of symbolic logic. The technical difficulties involved gave rise to his distinctive philosophical doctrines, forcefully set out in his *Grundlagen der Arithmetik* (1884, The Foundations of Arithmetic). His *Grundgesetze der Arithmetik* (1893--1903, Basic Laws of Arithmetic) contained a postscript acknowledging that Russell had spotted a contradiction in his thinking. Depressed by the poor reception of his ideas, he wrote little after 1903. |