Mathematician, born in Bourg-la-Reine, NC France. He was educated privately and at the Collège Royal de Louis-le-Grand. Despite mathematical ability he failed the entrance for the Ecole Polytechnique to study maths, and settled for the Ecole Normale Supérieure in 1829 to train as a teacher, but was expelled in 1830 for republican sympathies. He engaged in political agitation, was imprisoned twice, and was killed in a duel aged 21. His mathematical reputation rests on fewer than 100 pages of posthumously published work of original genius in the branch of higher algebra known as group theory.