Gibbs, J(osiah) Willard
Mathematician and physicist, born in New Haven, Connecticut, USA. He studied at Yale, becoming the recipient of the first doctorate in engineering awarded in the USA. After studying in Europe for a few years, he returned to Yale in 1869, becoming professor there in 1871. He contributed to the study of thermodynamics; and his most important work, first published as the paper "On the Equilibrium of Heterogeneous Substances' (1876), established him as a founder of physical chemistry.