Monge, Gaspard, comte de (Count of) Péluse[mõzh]
Mathematician, physicist, and founder of descriptive geometry, born in Beaune, E France. He was professor of mathematics at Mézières (1768), and professor of hydraulics at the Lycée in Paris (1780). He helped to found the Ecole Polytechnique (1794), and became professor of mathematics there. The following year there appeared his Leçons de géométrie descriptive, in which he stated his principles regarding the general application of geometry to the arts of construction (descriptive geometry). During the Revolution he was minister for the navy, and in charge of the national manufacture of arms and gunpowder. He was made a senator (1805), but lost his honours at the Restoration, and died in poverty.