Mathematician and scientist, born in London, England, UK. He turned from the law to mathematics, becoming professor of applied mathematics at University College, London, and professor of eugenics. He published The Grammar of Science (1892), and works on eugenics, mathematics, and biometrics. Motivated by the study of evolution and heredity, he was a founder of modern statistical theory, and his work established statistics as a subject in its own right. He also founded and edited the journal Biometrika(1901--36).