Peirce, Charles Sanders[peers]
Philosopher, logician, and mathematician, born in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. He studied at Harvard, and worked for the US Coast and Geodetic Survey from 1861. In 1879 he became a lecturer in logic at Johns Hopkins University, but left in 1894 to devote the rest of his life to private study. His enormous output of papers was collected and published posthumously in eight volumes (1931--58). A pioneer in the development of modern, formal logic and the logic of relations, he is best known as the founder of pragmatism, which he later named "pragmaticism' to distinguish it from the work of William James. His theory of meaning helped establish the field of semiotics.