Turing, Alan (Mathison)[tooring]
Mathematician, born in London, England, UK. He studied at Cambridge and Princeton, worked in cryptography during World War 2, then joined the National Physical Laboratory (1945) and the computing laboratory at Manchester (1948). He provided a precise mathematical characterization of computability, and introduced the theoretical notion of an idealized computer (since called a Turing machine), laying the foundation for the field of artificial intelligence. He committed suicide after being prosecuted for homosexuality.