Cherwell, Frederick Alexander Lindemann, 1st Viscount[chah(r)wel]
Scientist, born in Baden-Baden, Germany. He was brought up in England, but went to university at Berlin and the Sorbonne. In 1914 he became director of the Experimental Physics Station at Farnborough, where he evolved the mathematical theory of aircraft spin, and tested it in a daring flight. In 1919 he became professor of experimental philosophy at Oxford, and later director of the Clarendon Laboratory. A close friend of Churchill, he became his scientific adviser in 1940. He was created a baron in 1941, and was paymaster-general on two occasions (1942--5, 1951--3).