Dedekind, (Julius Wilhelm) Richard[daydekind]
Mathematician, born in Braunschweig, Germany. He studied at Göttingen, where he wrote his doctoral thesis under Carl Friedrich Gauss in 1852. He taught at Göttingen (1854--8), then in Zürich, and returned to Braunschweig in 1862 as professor at the Polytechnic. He gave one of the first precise definitions of the real number system, did important work in number theory, and introduced many concepts which have become fundamental in modern algebra, in particular that of an "ideal', building on the work of Ernst Kummer.