Math Glossary

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1. Absolute value

Distance of a number from 0. It is always a positive number.

2. Abundant numbers

Number less than the sum of its proper divisors.

3. Acute angle

Angle less than 90 radians. Lies between 0° and 90°.

4. Acute triangle

Triangle having three acute angles.

5. Addend

A number added to another number.

6. Addition

Process of taking sum of two or more numbers.

7. Addition Property of Equality

The sides remain equal if we add or subtract same number on both sides of equation.

8. Additive inverse

A number added to another number to get zero.

9. Adjacent angles

Angles that do not overlap having common side and common vertex.

10. Algebra

Branch of mathematics deals with mathematics symbols.

11. Algebraic equation

An equation attained by equating to zero a sum of a finite number of terms each one of which is a product of positive integral powers.

12. Algebraic expression

A specific arrangement of variables, algebraic operators, and integer constants.

13. Algebraic numbers

A complex number that is a root of a non-zero polynomial in one variable with rational coefficients.

14. Alphametic numbers

A mathematical puzzle where each letter stands for a digit from 0 to 9.

15. Amicable numbers

Two different numbers associated in such a way that the addition of the proper divisors of each is equal to the other number.

16. Angle

A figure formed by two lines having a common endpoint.

17. Angle measure

Measure of the angle formed by the two arms or rays at a mutual vertex.

18. Arc

A portion of the circumference of a circle. 

19. Area

Quantity that indicates the extent of a two-dimensional shape in the plane.

20. Area of a circle

Measurement of a circle. A = πr²

21. Area of a polygon

Amount of region or space occupied by a polygon.

22. Arithmetic

Branch of mathematics involves the study of numbers and traditional operators.

23. Arithmetic expression

An expression that uses addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, and exponentiation.

24. Arithmetic mean

Sum of all numerical values divided by total number of terms.

25. Arithmetic operations

Operations containing addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.

26. Arrangement numbers

Number of ways that a number of things can be arranged or ordered.

27. Associative Law of Multiplication

Multiplying three or more numbers will not affect the result if grouping is altered.

28. Associative Property

Rearrangement of the parentheses in an expression will not change the output.

29. Automorphic numbers

A natural number in a given number base whose square ends in the same digits as the number itself.

30. Average

Sum of the numbers divided by how many numbers are being averaged.


1. Bar chart

Presents categorical data with rectangular bars with lengths or heights proportional to the values that they represent. 

2. Bar notation

Method of writing digits repeating decimals using bar sign.

3. Base

Number of letters and combination of digits that a system of counting uses to symbolize numbers.

4. Base 10 system

Decimal number system having 10 digits from 0 to 9.

5. Bayes' Theorem

A mathematical formula for determining conditional probability named after British mathematician Thomas Bayes.

6. Bell curve

A type of continuous probability distribution for a real-valued random variable.

7. Biased sample

The process used to generate the sample results in samples that are methodically dissimilar from the population.

8. Biconditional statement

An arrangement of a conditional statement and its opposite written in if and only if form. 

9. Bimodal

Relating two modes, specifically of a statistical distribution having two maxima.

10. Binary numbers

Numbers expressed in base-2 system involving only 2 digits 0 and 1.

11. Binomial

An algebraic expression of the sum or the difference of two terms.

12. Binomial theorem

Algebraic expansion of powers of a binomial. 

13. Bisect

Dividing a line or segment in two parts.

14. Box-and-whisker graph

A process for graphically representing groups of numerical data through their quartiles.

15. Brackets

Symbols used for grouping expressions or equations.


1. Cardinal numbers

A broad view of the natural numbers used to measure the cardinality of sets.

2. Catalan numbers

Numbers that arrange a sequence of natural numbers that exist in several counting problems, frequently containing recursively defined objects. 

3. Center of a circle

Point that is at the equal distance from the edges of a circle.

4. Certain event

An event that is sure to happen.

5. Choice numbers

Number of ways that a number of things can be grouped or chosen.

6. Chord

A straight line segment whose endpoints both lie on the circle.

7. Circle

A round shaped figure that has no edges or corners.

8. Circular primes

A prime number with property that the number produced at every intermediate step when cyclically permuting its digits will be prime.

9. Circumference

Distance around the outside of the circle.

10. Closed figure

A figure whose start and end points are same.

11. Clustering

Depicting a group of data points, numbers or people that are located close together.

12. Combination

A method that defines the number of possible arrangements in a set of items where the order of the selection does not matter. 

13. Commission

An amount paid for a service.

14. Commutative Property

Altering the order of the operands does not change the result.

15. Compatible numbers

Numbers that are easy to add, subtract, multiply, or divide mentally.

16. Complement of a set

A set having all elements in universal set except the elements of the set under complement.

17. Complementary angles

Two angles having sum of 90 degrees.

18. Complex fractions

A fraction in which the numerator and denominator or both have fractions.

19. Complex numbers

number that can be expressed in the form a + bi.

20. Composite numbers

A positive integer that can be formed by multiplying two smaller positive integers.

21. Compound event

An event that has more than one possible results.

22. Compound interest

Interest on interest.

23. Compound statement

A sentence that contains two or more statements separated by logical connectors.

24. Conditional probability

Probability of one event happening with some relationship to one or more other events.

25. Conditional statement

statement that can be written in the form “If A then B.

26. Cone

A three-dimensional geometric shape having flat base.

27. Congruent figures

Figures identical in shape.

28. Congruent numbers

A positive integer that is the area of a right triangle with three rational number sides.

29. Congruent polygons

Polygons of same size and shape.

30. Constant

A value that doesn’t change.

31. Convenience sample

Involves the sample being drawn from that part of the population that is close to hand.

32. Coordinate

A system that uses one or more numbers, or coordinates, to uniquely determine the position of the points.

33. Coordinate plane

A Cartesian coordinate system that specifies each point on a plane.

34. Corresponding angles

Angles formed when two parallel lines are crossed by a line.

35. Cross products

A vector c that is perpendicular to both a and b, with a direction given by the right-hand rule and a magnitude equal to the area of the parallelogram that the vectors span.

36. Cube

A three-dimensional solid object bounded by six square faces or sides with all three meeting at each vertex.

37. Cubic numbers

A number multiplied to itself three times.

38. Cumulative frequency

Total frequency in a frequency distribution.

39. Customary measurement system

A set of measures and weights used for measuring temperature, capacity, length, and weight.

40. Cyclic numbers

An integer in which cyclic permutations of the digits are succeeding integer multiples of the number.

41. Cylinder

A three-dimensional surface with the surface shaped by the points at a fixed distance from a given line segment, known as the axis.


1. Data

Collection of words, measurements, numbers, etc.

2. Data set

A collection or grouping of words, measurements, numbers or observations.

3. Decimal

A dots that specifies the values in tenths, hundredths, etc.

4. Decimal digits

Digits from 0 to 9.

5. Decimal fraction

A fraction where the denominator is a power of ten. 

6. Decimal numbers

Numbers from 0 to 9, having base-10.

7. Decimal point

A dot or point used to separate the whole number part from the fractional part of a number.

8. Decimal system

System that uses a notation in which each number is expressed in base 10 by using numbers from 0 to 9.

9. Deficient number

number n for which the sum of divisors of ''n'' is less than 2n.

10. Degree

The largest exponent the variable has in a polynomial with one variable.

11. Degrees

A measurement of a plane angle in which one full rotation is 360 degrees.

12. Denominator

A number occurs below the line in a fraction.

13. Dependent events

Two events are dependent if the result of the first affects the result of the second so that the probability is altered.

14. Diameter

A line passed through the center of circle whose endpoints touches the circle.

15. Difference

Result of subtracting one number from another.

16. Digital root

Value acquired by an iterative procedure of summing digits, on each iteration using the outcome from the former iteration to compute a digit sum.

17. Dimension

Minimum number of coordinates needed to specify any point within it.

18. Discount

A deduction from the usual cost of something.

19. Disjoint

Having no common elements in two sets.

20. Disjunction

A compound statement formed by joining two statements with the connector OR.

21. Distributive Property of Multiplication

Multiplying two numbers will result in the same thing as breaking up one factor into two addends, multiplying both addends by the other factor, and adding together both products.

22. Dividend

A number being divided.

23. Divisibility rule

A way of defining whether a given integer is divisible by a fixed divisor without performing the division.

24. Division

A process of distribution of numbers or objects.

25. Division Property of Equality

When we divide both sides of an equation by the same non-zero number, the two sides remain equal.

26. Divisor

A number used to divide the dividend.


1. Edge

A type of line joining two sides or vertices.

2. Egyptian fractions

Sum of finitely many rational numbers, each of which can be written in the form q1, where q is a positive integer. 

3. Ellipsis

Set of all points on a plane whose distance from two fixed points F and G add up to a constant.

4. Empty set

A set having no element.

5. Equality

State of being equal or having same value.

6. Equation

A statement that asserts the equality of two expressions, which are linked by the equals sign "=".

7. Equilateral triangle

A triangle in which all three sides have the same length.

8. Equivalent

Two quantities or values being same.

9. Equivalent decimals

Decimals having same value.

10. Equivalent fractions

Fractions having same value but numerator and denominator are different.

11. Equivalent ratios

Ratios having same value.

12. Even numbers

Numbers that can be competent divided by 2.

13. Expanded form

A way of writing numbers to see the math value of individual digits.

14. Experiment

An approach to investigate objects and its properties.

15. Experimental probability

Probability determined on the basis of the results of an experiment repeated many times. 

16. Exponent

The number of times a number is multiplied by itself.

17. Expression

A finite combination of signs and symbols that is well-formed according to rules that depend on the context.


1. Factor numbers

Numbers multiply to get another number.

2. Factor tree

A diagram used to determine the prime factors of a natural number greater than one.

3. Factorial numbers

The product of all the integers from 1 to that number.

4. Fibonacci Numbers

Each number is the sum of the two preceding ones, starting from 0 and 1.

5. Fibonacci Sequence

Each number is the sum of the two preceding ones, starting from 0 and 1.

6. Figurate numbers

A number that can be represented by a regular geometrical arrangement of equally spaced points.

7. Finite

Limited to an extent.

8. Finite set

A set that has a limited number of elements.

9. Fractal

A class of complex geometric shapes that commonly have fractional dimension.

10. Fraction

A number that represents a part of a whole.

11. Fraction bar

A visual illustration of fractions which aids in comparing fractions and carrying out operations with fractions.

12. Frequency table

A table that lists items and expresses the number of times the items occur. 

13. Function

A binary relation between two sets that links every component of the first set to exactly one element of the second set.

14. Fundamental Counting Principle

If there are s ways to do one thing, and r ways to do another thing, then there are s×r ways to do both things.


1. Geometry

Branch of mathematics that studies the shapes, angles, positions, sizes, and dimensions of things.

2. Gnomon

A rectangle with another rectangle cut out of one corner.

3. Goldbach's Conjecture

Every even whole number greater than 2 is the sum of two prime numbers.

4. Golden Ratio

Two quantities are in the golden ratio if their ratio is the equivalent as the ratio of their sum to the larger of the two quantities (1.618). 

5. Golden Rectangle

A rectangle whose side lengths are in the golden ratio.

6. Graph

Visual representation of quantities or expressions on a plane.

7. Greater than

Relationship between two quantities depicting one is greater than other.

8. Greatest

Largest number in a set.

9. Greatest common factor (GCF)

Highest number that divides exactly into two or more numbers.

10. Grid

Coordinate plane containing a space of small squares, with an x-axis and y-axis.

11. Grid lines

Lines that cross the chart plot to show axis divisions.

12. Gyrating numbers

Numbers whose digits increase and decrease in a continuous repetitive cycle.


1. Happy numbers

A number which eventually reaches 1 when replaced by the sum of the square of each digit.

2. Harshad number

An integer that is divisible by the sum of its digits when written in the given base. 

3. Height

Measurement from base to top.

4. Helix

A smooth space curve with tangent lines at a constant angle to a fixed axis (i.e., spiral staircase).

5. Hexagon

A six-sided polygon or 6-gon. Angles totaling to 720 degree.

6. Histogram

 A graphical display of data using bars of different heights.

7. Horizontal bar

A line used to indicate that the expression is to be considered grouped together.

8. Horizontal scale

Multiplies or dividing every x-coordinate by a constant while leaving the y-coordinate unchanged. 

9. Hypotenuse

Lengthiest side of a right-angled triangle, the side opposite the right angle.

10. Hypothesis

A proposed explanation for a phenomenon.


1. Identity Property of One

Any number multiplied by 1 stays the same.

2. Identity Property of Zero

Any number added or subtracted to zero stays the same.

3. Imaginary number

Square root of a negative number that does not have a tangible value, multiplied by the imaginary unit i.

4. Impossible event

An event that cannot happen.

5. Improper fraction

A fraction in which the numerator is greater than or equal to the denominator.

6. Independent events

An event that has no link to another event's chances of occurring or not occurring.

7. Indirect measurement

A process of using proportions to find an unidentified length or distance in same figures.

8. Inequality

Having terms or numbers not equal.

9. Infinite number

A number that is not limited to an extent.

10. Infinite set

A set having unlimited number of objects or numbers.

11. Integer operations

Operations performed on integers such as addition, subtraction, etc.

12. Integers

A number that can be written without a fractional component. 

13. Intersecting lines

Lines crossing or bisecting each other at some point.

14. Intersection

Act of crossing a line.

15. Interval

A set of real numbers that comprises of all real numbers lying between any two numbers of the set.

16. Inverse operations

An operation that undoes what was done by the previous operation.

17. Irrational number

A real number that cannot be written as a simple fraction.

18. Isosceles triangle

A triangle having two sides of the same length.


1. Jefferson Method

A type of party-list proportional representation, highest averages method for allotting seats.


1. Keith Number

A natural number in a number base with digits such that when a sequence is created, such that the first terms are the digits of and each subsequent term is the sum of the previous terms, is part of the sequence.

2. Knot

A closed non-self-intersecting curve that is implanted in three dimensions and cannot be untied to make a simple loop.


1. Lateral faces

The faces in a prism or pyramid that are not bases.

2. Leading zero

Any 0 digit that comes before the first nonzero digit in a number string in positional notation.

3. Least common denominator (LCD)

Smallest number that can be a common denominator for a set of fractions.

4. Least common multiple (LCM)

 Smallest positive number that is a multiple of two or more numbers.

5. Leg

A leg of geometrical shape is one of its sides.

6. Length

Any arbitrarily chosen and accepted reference standard for measurement.

7. Less than

Relationship between two numbers depicting inequality.

8. Like terms

Terms that have the same powers and variables.

9. Line

A one- dimensional straight figure that has no thickness and extends infinitely in both directions.

10. Line chart

A chart formed by joining the points given by the data with straight lines.

11. Line graph

A graph formed by linking the points given by the data with straight lines.

12. Line of symmetry

The axis or imaginary line that passes through the center of the object or shape and divides it into equal halves.

13. Line plot

Type of plot which shows information as a series of data points known as markers joined by straight line segments. 

14. Line segment

A line that is confined by two separate end points, and holds every point on the line between its endpoints.

15. Logical connector

Combines simple statements into compound statements.

16. Logically equivalent

If two statements or expressions have same truth values for each possible substitution for their variables. 

17. Long division

A standard division algorithm appropriate for dividing multi-digit numbers that is simple enough to perform by hand. 

18. Lower extreme

The least value in the data set.

19. Lower quartile

Middle number that occurs between the least value of the dataset and the median.

20. Lowest terms

The form of a fraction in which the numerator and denominator have no factor in common except 1.


1. Map scale

The ratio of a distance on the map to the corresponding distance on the ground.

2. Mean

Sum of the values divided by the number of values.

3. Measure of central tendency

A single value that attempts to determine a set of data by recognizing the central position within that set of data.

4. Median

A value splitting the greater half from the lower half of a data sample or a population.

5. Mental arithmetic

Arithmetical calculations using only the human brain, with no help from any devices.

6. Mersenne numbers

A prime number that is one less than a power of two.

7. Metric system

A system of measurement that uses the liter, meter and gram as base units of capacity, weight, and length.

8. Midpoint

Middle point of a line which is equal from endpoints.

9. Mixed number

A whole number and a proper fraction represented together.

10. Mode

Value that appears most often in a set of data values.

11. Monodigit numbers

A natural number composed of repeated instances of the same digit.

12. Multiple

An outcome after multiplying the number by an integer.

13. Multiple-bar graph

A graph used to show relationship between different values of data using bars.

14. Multiple-line graph

A graph used to display relationship between different values of data using lines.

15. Multiples

A number that can be divided by another number a certain number of times without a remainder.

16. Multiplication

Operation of obtaining product of two numbers.

17. Multiplication Property of Equality

Having same equality after multiplying both sides of an equation by same number.

18. Multiply perfect number

A number N is said to be Multiply-perfect numbers if N divides sigma (N), where sigma (N) = sum of all divisors of N.

19. Mutually exclusive

A statistical term illustrating two or more events that cannot happen at the same time. 


1. Narcissistic numbers

Numbers that can be expressed by some kind of mathematical manipulation of their digits.

2. Natural numbers

Numbers used for counting and ordering 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,…., .

3. Negation

An operation that takes a proposition to another proposition "not ", written, or.

4. Negative integer

A whole number that has value less than zero.

5. Null set

Set having no value at all.

6. Number line

A straight line with numbers positioned at equal segments or intervals along its length. 

7. Number sequences

A list of numbers that are linked by a rule.

8. Number theory

A study of properties of the integers. 

9. Numerator

A number above the line in a vulgar fraction.

10. Numerical expression

A mathematical sentence involving only numbers and one or more operation signs.


1. Object

Anything that has been formally defined.

2. Oblong numbers

A number which is the product of two consecutive integers, that is, a number of the form n.

3. Obtuse angle

Angle greater than 90° but less than 180°.

4. Obtuse triangle

Triangle having one obtuse angle.

5. Octagon

An eight-sided polygon or 8-gon.

6. Octahedral numbers

A figurate number that shows the number of spheres in an octahedron shaped from close-packed spheres.

7. Odd Numbers

A number that leaves a remainder when divided by 2.

8. Opposites

Inverse of each other.

9. Order of operations

A collection of procedures that reflect conventions about which procedures to perform first in order to calculate a given mathematical expression.

10. Ordered pair

A pair of numbers of variables in which the order of the objects is important and is used to differentiate and identify the pair.

11. Ordering fractions

Arranging fraction either from the smallest to the largest or largest to smallest.

12. Ordinal numbers

Number that describes the position of something in a list.

13. Origin

A special point used as a fixed point of reference for the geometry of the surrounding space.

14. Outcome

The result of a calculation in an undergoing evaluation.

15. Outlier

A data point that varies considerably from other observations.

16. Overestimate

An estimate that is too high surpassing the actual outcome.

17. Overlapping sets

Two sets having at least one element in common.


1. Palindrome number

A number that remains the unchanged when its digits are reversed.

2. Pandigital number

A pandigital number is an integer that in a given base has among its significant digits each digit used in the base at least once.

3. Parallel lines

Two lines in a plane that do not intersect each other.

4. Parallelogram

A quadrilateral with two pairs of parallel sides.

5. Parasite numbers

Numbers that keeps the exact same digits when divided or multiplied by another number. 

6. Parentheses

Brackets used to specify order of evaluation.

7. Partial products

Multiplying each digit of a number in turn with each digit of another where each digit keeps its position. 

8. Pascal's Triangle

A triangular array created by summing adjacent elements in preceding rows.

9. Pentagon

Five-sided polygon having sum of internal angles of 540 degree.

10. Pentatope numbers

A number in the fifth cell of any row of Pascal's triangle starting with the 5-term row 1 4 6 4 1 either from left to right or from right to left.

11. Percent

A ratio or number that represents a fraction of 100.

12. Percent change

Change in a percentage from start to end.

13. Percent decrease

A measure of percent change which is the extent to which something drops value.

14. Percent increase

A measure of percent change which is the extent to which something gains value.

15. Percent symbol

Symbol used to indicate a percentage %”.

16. Percentage

A number or ratio expressed as a fraction of 100. 

17. Perfect numbers

A positive integer that is equal to the sum of its positive divisors, except the number itself.

18. Perimeter

Distance around a two-dimensional space.

19. Period

Length from one peak to next in a periodic function.

20. Periodic numbers

Numbers that can be expressed as an integral of an algebraic function over an algebraic domain.

21. Permutable prime

A number that remains prime on every reordering of the digits.

22. Perpendicular lines

Two lines that meet or intersect each other at right angles 90°.

23. Persistent numbers

The sequential product of whose digits, ultimately produces a single digit number. 

24. Pi

Mathematical constant with a value of 3.14159.

25. Pi Day

Annual celebration of the constant Pi celebrated on March 14 every year.

26. Pie chart

A circular statistical graphic, which is divided into portions to demonstrate numerical proportion. 

27. Place value

Value of each digit in a number.

28. Plane

A two-dimensional flat surface that spreads infinitely far.

29. Plane figure

A geometric figure that has no thickness and lies completely in one plane.

30. Point

Element of space with no width, length or size.

31. Point of rotation

A central point around which a figure is rotated.

32. Polygon

Closed curve involving a set of line segments linked in a way that no two segments cross.

33. Polygonal numbers

A number represented as pebbles or dots organized in the shape of a regular polygon.

34. Polyhedron

A three-dimensional shape with sharp corners or vertices, straight edges, and flat polygonal faces.

35. Positive

Number greater than zero.

36. Positive integers

Natural numbers used for counting 1, 2, 3, 4…,.

37. Power

Demonstrates how many times to use the number in a multiplication.

38. Precision

Number of digits used to perform a given computation.

39. Prime factorization

Breaking a number down into the set of prime numbers which multiply together to outcome in the original number.

40. Prime number

Number that is divisible only by itself and 1.

41. Principal

The total amount of money loaned out or invested, not involving any dividends or interest.

42. Prism

A polyhedron comprising an n-sided polygonal base, a second base which is a translated copy of the first, and n other faces joining corresponding sides of the two bases.

43. Probability

Branch of mathematics regarding numerical descriptions of how likely an event is to happen, or how likely it is that a proposition is correct. 

44. Probability theory

Branch of mathematics concerned with probability. 

45. Product

Process of multiplying two or more numbers.

46. Product perfect numbers

Product of all divisors of the number, other than itself, is equal to the number.

47. Pronic numbers

A number which is the product of two consecutive integers, that is, a number of the form n(n + 1).

48. Proper fraction

A fraction where the numerator is less than the denominator.

49. Proper subset

Subset of A that is not equal to A.

50. Proportion

A number in comparative relationship with a whole.

51. Protractor

A measuring instruments for measuring angles.

52. Pyramid

A polyhedron formed by connecting a polygonal base and a point, called the apex.

53. Pyramidal numbers

A figurate number that represents a pyramid with a polygonal base and a given number of triangular sides.

54. Pythagorean Theorem

Area of the square with hypotenuse side is equal to the sum of the areas of the squares on the other two sides.


1. Quadrants

The axes of a two-dimensional Cartesian system divide the plane into four infinite regions.

2. Quadratic equations

Equation that can be reordered in standard form as where x represents an unknown, and a, b, and c represent known numbers.

3. Quadratic formula

Formula that provides the solution to a quadratic equation.

4. Quadrilateral

A two-dimensional closed shape which has four straight sides.

5. Quasi perfect numbers

A natural number n for which the sum of all its divisors is equal to 2n + 1.

6. Quotient

A number or quantity produced by the division of two numbers.


1. Radius

A straight line from the center to the circumference of a sphere or circle.

2. Radii

Plural of radius.

3. Random number

A number selected as if by chance from some specified distribution such that selection of a large set of these numbers regenerates the underlying distribution.

4. Random sample

A sample that is chosen randomly from a larger data set.

5. Range

Difference between the greatest and lowest values.

6. Rate

Ratio between two related quantities in different units.

7. Ratio

The quantifiable relation between two numbers or quantities expressing the number of times one value includes or is contained within the other.

8. Rational number

A number that can be expressed as fraction or quotient of two integers.

9. Ray

A part of line that has fixed starting point but no ending point.

10. Real numbers

Number that can have both rational and irrational numbers.

11. Reasonable estimate

An estimate that does not exceeds the original answer of the calculation.

12. Reciprocal

Multiplicative inverse of a number.

13. Rectangle

A quadrilateral having parallel sides equal to each other and four right angles.

14. Rectangular numbers

Numbers that can be arranged to shape a rectangle.

15. Rectangular prism

A 3-dimensional solid object having six faces that are rectangles.

16. Regular hexagon

A hexagon that is both equilateral and equiangular.

17. Regular pentagon

Pentagon having five sides whose interior angles are 108 degree.

18. Regular polygon

A polygon having all angles equal in measure and all sides of same length.

19. Relatively prime numbers

If there is no integer greater than 1 that divides two numbers, then they are relatively prime numbers.

20. Remainder

Number of amount left after a division.

21. Repeating decimal

Decimal illustration of a number whose digits are repeating its values at regular intervals and the infinitely repeated portion is not zero.

22. Repunit numbers

Number that includes repeated number of digit 1 and only included 1.

23. Rhombus

A quadrilateral whose four sides all have the same length.

24. Right angle

Angle of 90°.

25. Right triangle

Triangle having one right angle.

26. Roman Numerals

A number system developed in ancient Rome where letters such as X, I, V, L represent numbers.

27. Roster notation

A simple mathematical illustration of a set in mathematical form.

28. Rotation (turn)

A transformation in geometry in which an object is rotated about a fixed point called a point of rotation.

29. Rotational symmetry

Property of a shape which make it looks the same after some rotation by a partial turn.

30. Round

Shaped like a circle or cylinder.


1. Sale price

Price that has been set after adding some profit to the cost.

2. Sales tax

A tax paid to government for selling product or services to people.

3. Sample

A set of objects chosen or collected from a statistical population by a defined procedure.

4. Sample space

A set of possible outcomes of a random experiment.

5. Scale

Represents the relationship between measurement on the actual object and a measurement on a model.

6. Scale drawing

A drawing which has been enlarged or reduced from its original size, to a specified scale.

7. Scalene triangle

A triangle in which all three sides have dissimilar lengths and all three angles have different measures.

8. Scatterplot

A type of data representation that displays the relationship between two numerical variables.

9. Scientific notation

A way of writing very large or very small numbers.

10. Sectors

Portion of a disk surrounded by an arc and two radii, where the larger being the major sector and the smaller area is known as the minor sector.

11. Self-similarity

Object approximately or exactly similar to a part of itself.

12. Semiperfect numbers

A natural number that is equal to the sum of all or some of its proper divisors.

13. Sequence

A sequence is a counted collection of objects in which recurrences are permissible and order matters.

14. Set

A collection of objects or elements.

15. Set equality

Elements or members of two sets are same.

16. Set notation

Used for describing a set by numbering its elements, or declaring the properties that its members must fulfil.

17. Set theory

Branch of mathematical logic that studies sets, which informally are collections of objects. 

18. Set-builder notation

Mathematical notation for determining a set by numbering its elements, or declaring the properties that its members must fulfil.

19. Sieve of Eratosthenes

Algorithm to find any prime numbers to a given extent.

20. Similar figures

Figures having congruent corresponding angles and equal side length.

21. Simulation

A method to model random events, so that simulated results closely match real-world results. 

22. Sociable numbers

Numbers whose exact divisor sums form a cyclic sequence that starts and ends with the same number. 

23. Solid figure

Three-dimensional objects having height, width, and length.

24. Square

A regular quadrilateral having four equal angles and four equal sides.

25. Square numbers

Number produced by multiplying to itself.

26. Square root

A value when multiplied to itself gives the original number.

27. Squarefull number

A number that has at least a square in its prime factorization.

28. Standard form

Method of representing numbers that are too small or too large.

29. Stem-and-leaf plot

Table for displaying measureable data in a graphical format, like a histogram, to assist in visualizing the shape of a distribution.

30. Straight angle

An angle equal to 180 degree.

31. Straight commission

Commission only earned by making sales.

32. Subset

A set is subset of other set of it has all elements of that set.

33. Subtraction

Arithmetic operation that characterizes the operation of eliminating objects from a collection.

34. Subtraction Property of Equality

Equation will be the same if a number is subtracted from both sides of the equation.

35. Sum

Adding two or more numbers or variables.

36. Superabundant numbers

A natural number n where for all m < n where σ denotes the sum-of-divisors function.

37. Supplementary angles

Angles whose sum is equal to 180 degree.

38. Surface area

A measure of the total area that the surface of the object occupies.

39. Survey

A list of questions intended at mining specific data from a specific group of people.

40. Symbolic Form

Sentence expressed in symbolic form uses logical connectors and symbols to represent the sentence logically.

41. Symbolic logic

Use of symbols to represent relations terms, and propositions in order to assist reasoning.

42. Systematic sample

Statistical approach having the selection of elements from an ordered sampling frame.


1. Table

Lists of numbers presenting the outcomes of a calculation with changing arguments. 

2. Tag Numbers

Other names for numbers that are in our everyday use. 

3. Tally table

Table with tally signs to represent a valuable data set.

4. Tautology

A statement or formula that is true in every possible explanation.

5. Taxicab numbers

The smallest integer that can be presented as a sum of two positive integer cubes in n distinct ways.

6. Terminating decimal

A decimal number that have finite number of digits after the decimal point.

7. Terms

Values on which the mathematical operations occur in an expression.

8. Tessellation

A pattern of shapes that fit perfectly together leaving no gaps on the surface.

9. Tetrahedral numbers

A figurate number that symbolizes a pyramid with three sides and a triangular base.

10. Theoretical probability

Probability that is determined on the basis of reasoning.

11. Three-dimensional

Object that can be measured in three dimensions such as height, width, and length.

12. Transcendental Numbers

A number that is not algebraic and not the root of a non-zero polynomial with rational coefficients.

13. Transformation

A function f that maps a set X to itself.

14. Translation (slide)

A motion in geometry in which an object is moved along a straight line without turning or changing the shape or size.

15. Trapezoid

A convex quadrilateral with at least one pair of parallel sides.

16. Trapezoidal numbers

A positive integer that can be expressed as the sum of two or more successive positive integers.

17. Tree diagram

Diagram used to represent a probability space.

18. Trend

A pattern in a set of results displayed in a graph.

19. Triangle

A polygon with three vertices and edges.

20. Triangular numbers

Numbers used to describe the pattern of dots that form larger and larger triangles.

21. Triple prime numbers

Three successive primes, such that the first and the last differ by six.

22. Truth table

Table that shows the truth-value of one or more compound propositions for every possible combination of truth-values of the propositions making up the compound ones. 

23. Twin prime numbers

A prime number that is either 2 more or 2 less than another prime number.


1. Unbiased sample

A sample is an unbiased sample if every element or individual in the population has an equal chance of being chosen.

2. Underestimate

An estimate that is less than the original outcome to a calculation. 

3. Union

Collection of all elements of two or more sets.

4. Unit fraction numbers

A rational number expressed as a fraction where the numerator is one and the denominator is a positive integer.

5. Unit rate

A rate with 1 in the denominator.

6. Universal set

A set which has elements of all the associated sets without any repetition of elements. 

7. Unlike fractions

Fractions that don’t have same denominators.

8. Upper extreme

Greatest value in the data set.

9. Upper quartile

Number dividing the 3rd and 4th quartile. 


1. Variable

Symbol used to depict varying quantities or expressions.

2. Venn diagram

A drawing or demonstration that uses circles to represent the relationships among things or finite groups of things.

3. Vertex

A point or corner where lines meet.

4. Vertical angles

The angles opposite each other when two lines cross.

5. Vertical bar

A mathematical symbol used for various purposes such as to depict absolute value, determinant, or as an OR operator etc.

6. Vertical scale

Multiplies or divides each y-coordinate by a constant but leaving the x-coordinate unaffected. 

7. Volume

Quantity of three-dimensional space surrounded by a closed surface.


1. Weight

Measure of how heavy an object is.

2. Whole numbers

A number that can be expressed without a fractional component.

3. Width

The measurement of the distance of a side of an object.

4. Word form

Method to write the numbers in descriptive form.

5. Word problem

Mathematical exercise where important contextual information on the problem is expressed in everyday language instead of mathematical notation.


1. X-axis

The line on a graph that runs from left to right (horizontally) through zero.

2. X-coordinate

X value in an ordered pair such as numbers paired together, are just two mathematical objects.


1. Y-axis

The line on a graph that runs from top to bottom (vertically) through zero.

2. Y-coordinate

Y value in an ordered pair such as numbers paired together, are just two mathematical objects.


1. Zero

A number in mathematics denoted by the symbol 0, used to show that no object is present.

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